Most successful innovations take off the same way: you create something people want, and as sales increase, economies of scale make production cheaper, fueling demand. For cryptocurrencies, it’s not that simple. As the volume of activity involving tokens such as Bitcoin and Ether increases, the slower and more expensive it becomes to record and secure each transaction. Various efforts have been made to solve the problem, but all of them make the system more vulnerable to malicious people or weaken the decentralized model that is the key to the appeal of cryptocurrencies. This “Blockchain Trilemma” is one of the thorniest challenges for the widespread adoption of cryptographic technology.